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GLOSSARY

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NOTE: This includes only those Sanskrit terms for which the English equivalents are not indicated simultaneously (or almost simultaneously) with their first occurrence in the text.
A
ABHASA: reflection
ABHEDA: without difference

ABHIMANA: ego-centred attachment

ABHYASA: spiritual practice

ACHARYA: preceptor

ADAMBHITVA: unpretentiousness
ADHAMA-UDDHARAKA: uplifter of the downtrodden
ADHIBHAUTIC: elemental

ADHIDAIVIC: celestial

ADHYATMIC: spiritual

ADVAITA: non-duality
ADVAITA-NISHTHA: establishment in the state of non-duality
AGNI: fire
AGNI-ASTRA: fire-missile

AGNIHOTRA: a fire-offering

AHAM: “I” or the ego
AHAM BRAHMA ASMI: I am Brahman
AHANGRAHA UPASANA: meditation in which the aspirant identifies himself with Brahman
AHANKARA: egoism

AHIMSA: non-violence

AISVARYA: divine powers
AJNA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy between the two eyebrows
AJNANA: ignorance
AKHANDA EKARASA: the one undivided Essence
AKARTA: non-doer

AKASA: ether

AKASAMATRA: ether only

AKHANDA: indivisible
AKHANDAKARA: of the nature of indivisibility

AMALAKA: phyllanthus emlica, Indian gooseberry

AMRITA: nectar
AMRITA PUTRA: nectar’s son
AMSA: part
ANADI: beginningless
ANAHATA: mystic sounds heard by Yogins

ANANDAGHANA: mass of bliss

ANANDAMAYA: full of bliss
ANANTA: infinite
ANANYA BHAKTI: exclusive devotion to the Lord

ANASAKTA: unattched

ANATMA: not-Self

ANITYA: transitory
ANNAMAYA KOSHA: food sheath, the gross physical body
ANTARGATA: immanent
ANTARIKA: internal
ANTAR-INDRIYA: internal sense-organ
ANTARJYOTIS: inner Light
ANTARMUKHA VRITTI: introspective thought-current
ANTARVAHA SARIRA: the subtle body of a Yogi by which he accomplishes entry into the bodies of others
ANUBHAVA: spiritual realisation
ANUBHAVA-GURU: preceptor who has had pesonal spiritual realisation
ANUSANDHANA: enquiry into the nature of Brahman
ANVAYA: the positive aspect

APANA: the down-going breath

APANCHIKRITA: non-quintuplicated

APAS: water
APAVADA-YUKTI: employment of the logical method of negation
ASABDA: soundless
ASAMPRAJNATA SAMADHI: superconscious state where the mind is totally annihilated
ASANA: bodily pose

ASANGA: unattached

ASHRAMA: hermitage

ASHTA: eight
ASHTAVADHANA: doing eight things at a time
ASTI-BHATI-PRIYA: same as Satchidananda, the eternal qualities inherent in Brahman
ASTRA: a missile invoked with a Mantra
ASUBHA: inauspicious
ASUDDHA: impure
ASUDDHA MANAS: impure mind

ASVANI MUDRA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya

ATMA(N): the Self
ATMA-DRISHTI: the vision of seeing everything as the Self
ATMA-JNANA: Knowledge of the Self
ATMAKARA: pertaining to Atman
ATMA-SAKSHATKARA: Self-realisation
ATMA-SAKTI: Soul-power

AVASTHA: state

AVICHHINNA: continuous

AVIDYA: nescience

AVINASI: imperishable

AVYAKTA: unmanifest

B

BAHIRMUKHA VRITTI: the outgoing thought-current
BAHIR-VRITTI: same as above
BAHIR-VRITTI-NIGRAHA: restraint of the outgoing thought-current
BAHYA-VRITTI-NIGRAHA: same as above
BHAJANA: devotional singing
BHAKTA: devotee
BHAKTI YOGA: the Yoga of devotion
BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA: a type of breathing exercise
BHAVA(NA): attitudinal feeling
BHAVA-SAMADHI: supeconscious state attained by devotees through intense divine emotion
BHEDA BUDDHI: the intellect which divides
BHOGA: enjoyment
BHOKTRITVA: the stage of being an enjoyer

BHRANTIMATRA: mere illusion

BHUTAJAYA: control over the elements

BHUTA-SAKTI: the power of the element

BRAHMACHARI(N): celibate

BRAHMACHARYA: celibacy
BRAHMAKARA VRITTI: thought of Brahman
BRAHMA LOKA: the world of Brahma, the four-headed Creator
BRAHMAN: the Absolute Reality
BRAHMANA: member belonging to the priestly caste
BRAHMA NADI: same as Sushumna
BRAHMA-NISHTHA: one who is established in the Knowledge of Brahman
BRAHMANUBHAVA: Self-realisation

BRAHMIN: Same as Brahmana

BUDDHI: intellect

C

CHAITANYA: pure consciousness

CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy

CHANCHALA: wavering

CHANCHALATA: tossing of the mind
CHARANAMRITA: water sanctified by the feet of a Deity or of a holy man
CHATAK: a bird
CHELA (Hindi): Disciple

CHIDGHANA: mass of consciousness

CHINMAYA: full of consciousness

CHINTANA: thinking
CHIRANJIVI: one who has gained eternal life
CHIT-MATRA: consciousness alone
CHIT-SVARUPA: of the very form of consciousness

CHITTA: subconscious mind
CHITTA-SUDDHI: purity of mind

D

DAMA: restraint of the sense-organs
DAMBHA: hypocrisy

DANA: charity

DARPA: vanity

DARSANA: vision
DEHADHYASA: attachment to the body, identification with the body

DEHATMA-BUDDHI: the intellect that makes one identify with the body

DEVA: a celestial being
DEVATA: a Deity, also the Lord

DHAIRYA: courage

DHARANA: concentration
DHARMA: righteous conduct; characteristic
DHRITI: spiritual patience
DHYANA: meditation
DHYANA YOGA: the Yoga of meditation

DINABANDHU: friend of the poor and the helpless, God

DOSHA: defect
DOSHA-DHRISHTI: the vision that perceives defects
DRISHTI: vision
DRISHTI-SRISHTI VADA: the theory that the world exists only so long as it is perceived
DURA-DRISHTI: distant vision
DVAITA: dualism

E

EKADASI: the eleventh day of the Hindu lunar fortnight
EKAGRA: one-pointed
EKAGRATA: one-pointedness of mind

G

GANIKA: prostitute

GHRINA: ill-will

GUNA: quality

GURU: preceptor

H

HATHA YOGA: the Yoga of physical perfection
HIRANYAGARBHA: Cosmic mind
HITA: astral tubes near the heart

 

I

IDA NADI: the psychic nerve-current which flows in the left nostril
INDRIYA: sense-organ
ISVARA: Lord, God

J

JAALA: jugglery, illusion

JAGADGURU: world-preceptor

JAGAT: world
JAGRAT: waking state
JALANDHARA BANDHA: a Hatha Yogic exercise
JAPA: repetition of the Name of the Lord
JIVA: the individual soul
JIVANMUKTA: one who is liberated in this life
JIVASRISHTI: creations of the individual soul such as egoism, mine-ness, etc.

JIVATMA(N): the individual soul
JNANA: knowledge of the Self
JNANA-BHUMIKA: plane of knowledge
JNANAGNI: fire of spiritual knowledge
JNANA-INDRIYAS: organs of knowledge or perception
JNANA YOGA: the Yoga of knowledge
JNANA YOGI(N): one who practises the Yoga of Knowledge
JNANI(N): the sage of wisdom

K

KALA-SAKTI: Divine Mother manifesting as Time

KALPA: a period of 432,00,00,000 years

KALPANAMATRA: lying only in imagination

KAMA: desire, lust
KAMANA: longing
KANDAMULA: roots and tubers
KARANA SARIRA: the causal body or the seed body
KARIKA: commentary
KARMA: action operating through the Law of Cause and Effect
KARMA-INDRIYAS: organs of action
KARMA YOGI(N): one who practises the Yoga of selfless service
KASHAYA: a subtle influence in the mind produced by enjoyment, hidden Vasana
KEVALA ASTI: pure Existence

KIRTAN: singing the Lord’s Name

KRIYA: Hatha Yogic exercise

KRODHA: anger
KSHAMA: forgiveness
KSHATRIYA: member belonging to the ruling caste

L

KULA-KUNDALINI: same as Kundalini
KUMBHAKA: retention of breath
KUNDALINI: the primordial cosmic energy located in the individual
KUTASTHA: the rock-seated, unchanging Brahman

L

LAKSHANA: characteristic
LAKSHYA: goal

LAYA: absorption

LILA: divine sport
LILA-VILASA: the splendour of divien sport

LINGA SARIRA: the subtle body, the astral body

LOBHA: covetousness
LOKA-KALYAN(A): good of the world

M

MADA: pride
MADHUKARI BHIKSHA: alms collected from door to door like a bee collecting honey from flower to flower
MAHABHEDA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
MAHARAJA: emperor

MAHARSHI: great sage

MAHATMA: great soul
MAHAVAKYA: (Lit.) Great sentence; Upanishadic declarations, four in number, expressing the identity between the individual soul and the Supreme Soul
MAHAVAKYANUSANDHANA: enquiry into the truth of the Mahavakyas
MALA-VASANA-RAHITA: free from impurities and subtle desires
MANO-MANDIR: temple of mind
MANAS: mind
MANDALA: region, sphere
MANIPURA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy in the region of the navel
MANONASA: annihilation of the mind
MANTRA: incantation
MANTRA SIDDHI: psychic power acquired through repetition of Mantra
MARGA: path MATRA: unit; alone

MATSARYA: jealousy

MAUJA (Urdu): sweet will

MOUNA: silence
MAYA: the illusory power of Brahman
MAYURASANA: the peacock pose
MITHYA-DRISHTI: the vision that the universe is unreal
MITHYATVA-BUDDHI: the intellect that considers this world as unreal
MOHA: delusion

MOKSHA: liberation
MUDRA: a type of exercise in Hatha Yoga
MUKTI: liberation
MULA AVIDYA: primal ignorance
MULA BANDHA: a Hatha Yogic exercise
MULADHARA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy located at the base of the spinal column
MUNI: an ascetic
MURKHA: foolish

N

NADA: a mystic sound
NAIYAYIKAS: followers of the Nyaya school of Indian philosophy
NAMA: name
NAVA RIDDHIS: the nine minor spiritual powers
NETI, NETI: not this, not this

NIDIDHYASANA: profound meditation

NIRABHIMANATA: free from ego-centred attachment

NIRABHIMANI: one who is devoid of Abhimana

NIRAKARA: formless
NIRAVAYAVA: without limbs
NIRBIJA-SAMADHI: Samadhi wherein the Bija or seeds of Samskaras are fried by Jnana
NIRGUNA: without attributes
NIRGUNA BRAHMAN: the impersonal, attributeless Absolute
NIRODHA: suppression
NIRVANA: liberation
NIRVIKALPA: without the modifications of the mind
NIRVIKARA: unchanging

NIRVISHAYA: without object

NISCHAYATMIKA: with firm conviction

NISHKAMA: without desire

NISHKRIYA: without action
NISHTHA: meditation, establishment (in a certain state)

NISSANKALPA: devoid of thought or imagination

NIVRITTI: renunciation
NIYAMA: observances
NYAYA: logic

O

OM(KARA): the sacred syllable symbolising Brahman
OM TAT SAT: a benediction, a solemn invocation of the Divine blessing

 

P

PADMASANA: the lotus pose
PARAMAHAMSA: the fourth or the highest class of Sannyasins
PARAMANANDA: supreme bliss
PARAMATMA(N): the Supreme Soul
PARAM DHAMA: the Supreme Abode (Brahman)
PINGALA NADI: the psychic nerve-current which flows in the right nostril
PITRILOKA: the world of manes
PRABHU: Lord
PRACHARANA: A Hatha Yogic Kriya
PRADAKSHINA: circumambulation
PRAJNA: Chaitanya associated with the causal body in the deep sleep state
PRAJNANAGHANA: mass of consciousness

PRAJNA-SAKTI: power of consciousness

PRAKAMYA: unhampered will
PRAKASA: luminosity
PRAKRITI: Nature, the primitive non-intelligent principle
PRAMANA: proof
PRANA: the vital force, the life-current
PRANAVA: same as OM
PRANAVA DHVANI: the cosmic sound of

OM PRANAYAMA: control of breath

PRAPANCHA VISHAYA: worldly objects

PRARABDHA: destiny
PRASAD: anything consecrated by being offered to God or to a saint

PRATIPAKSHA BHAVANA: entertaining a counter-idea

PRATISHTA: reputation, fame
PRATYAGATMA: Inner Self, Brahman
PRATYAHARA: abstraction or withdrawal of the senses from their objects
PRATYAKSHA: direct perception
PRAVAHA: flood-tide PREMA: affection

PRITHVI: earth
PUJA: worship
PUNDIT: a learned man
PURITAT NADI: one of the astral tubes or subtle passages in the body

R

RAGA-DVESHA: attraction and repulsion, like and dislike, love and hatred
RAGA-RAGINIS: melodic structures in music
RAJA: king
RAJASIC: passionate, active
RAJA YOGA: the Yoga of meditation
RIDDHIS: minor spiritual powers

RISHI: a seer of Truth
RUPA: form

S

SABDA: sound
SABDA-BHEDA: difference in sound
SABDA BRAHMAN: sound-form of Brahman
SABDA-JAALA: jugglery of words
SABHA: assembly

SADHAKA: spiritual aspirant

SADHANA: spiritual discipline

SADHU: a righteous man; a Sannyasin

SAGUNA: with attributes
SAHAJA: natural
SAHAJANANDA: state of bliss that has become natural
SAHAJA PARAMANANDA: state of absolute bliss that has become natural

SAHAJAVASTHA: superconscious state that has become natural and continuous

SAHASRARA: centre of spiritual energy at the crown of the head
SAKSHI: witness
SAKTI: power, potency
SAKTI-CHALANA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
SAMA: calmness of mind induced by eradication of Vasanas
SAMA-BHAVA: feeling of equality
SAMADHANA: mental balance
SAMADHI: the state of superconsciousness where Absoluteness is experienced
SAMA-DRISHTI: equal vision
SAMANYA: ordinary
SAMBHAVI MUDRA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
SAMSARA: the wheel of transmigration, cycle of birth and death
SAMSKARA: impression in the subconscious mind

SAMYAG-DARSANA: unclouded vision

SAMYAG-JNANA: Supreme knowledge
SAMYAMA: concentration, meditation and Samadhi
SAMYAVASTHA: the state of equanimity
SANDHYA: the daily worship of offering oblations to the Sun-God thrice a day—at sunrise, noon and sunset
SANGRAHA BUDDHI: the intellect that wants to accumulate and possess
SANKALPA: thought, imagination
SANKALPAMATRA: existing in thought only
SANKHYA: system of Indian philosophy founded by Kapila Muni
SANNYASI(N): renunciate, monk
SANTA-SIVA-ADVAITA: peaceful, auspicious, non-dual Brahman
SANTI: peace
SAPTA SVARA: the seven notes of the Indian scale of music

SARVA: all, everything
SARVANGASANA: a Yogic pose
SARVATMA BHAVA: feeling the one Self in all
SASTRAS: scriptures
SATAVADHANA: doing hundred things at a time
SATCHIDANANDA: Existence-Absolute, Knowledge-Absolute, Bliss-Absolute; Brahman
SATGURU: a true preceptor

SATSANGA: company of the wise

SAT SANKALPA: pure will

SATTVIC: pure
SATYA: truth
SAVIKALPA: with modifications
SAVITARKA SAMADHI: Samadhi with argumentation
SEVA: service
SIDDHANTA: established doctrine

SIDDHASANA: a meditative pose

SIDDHI: major psychic power; perfection

SIRSHASANA: the topsy-turvy pose
SIVOHAM: a Vedantic assertion meaning “I am Siva (the Absolute)”

SLOKA: verse
SMRITI: memory
SOHAM: a Vedantic assertion meaning “I am He (Brahman)”

SPHURANA: vibration. bursting forth
SRAADDHA: an annual ceremony when oblations are offered to the manes
SRADDHA: faith
SRUTI: musical refrain
STHULA AVIDYA: gross ignorance
STOTRAS: verses of praise

SUBHA: auspicious

SUDDHA: pure
SUDDHA MANAS: the pure mind

SUDDHA SANKALPA: pure will

SUDDHI: purity
SUKHA: happiness
SUKHASANA: the comfortable pose
SUKSHMA: subtle
SUKSHMA SARIRA: the subtle body, the astral body
SUSHUMNA: the psychic nerve-current that passes through the spinal column and through which the
Kundalini is made to rise through the practice of Yoga
SUSHUPTI: the deep sleep state

SUTRADHARA: the wire-puller, God

SVABHAVA: innate nature

SVADHYAYA: reading of scriptures

SVAPNA: dreaming state
SVARA-SADHANA: science of breath
SVARODAYA: same as above

SVARUPA: essential nature
SVARUPA-LAKSHANA: distinguishing marks of the essential nature of Brahman

T

TADANA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
TAIJASA: Chaitanya associated with the astral body in the dream state
TAMASIC: dull
TANMATRAS: subtle elements
TAPA: burning
TAPAS: penance
TAPASYA: practice of penance
TARPANA: libation of water for gratifying the manes
TATTVA: principle, Reality
TATTVA-JNANA: knowledge of Brahman
TAT TVAM ASI: That Thou Art
TIRTHA: place of pilgrimage usually containing a bathing place
TIRTHA-YATRA: pilgrimage

TITIKSHA: endurance

TRATAK(A): steady gazing
TRIKALA JNANA: knowledge of the three periods of time

TRIPHALA: three fruits used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine

TRIVENI: the place where three holy rivers meet
TUL(A)SI: the Indian holy basil plant
TURIYA: superconscious state
TUSHNIMBHUTA AVASTHA: a neutral state of the mind
TYAGA: renunciation

U

UDBODHAKA: stimulus, awakener
UDDIYANA: a Hatha Yogic exercise for raising the diaphragm
UDDIYANA BANDHA: same as above
UDGITHA: sonorous prayer prescribed in the Chhandogya Upanishad to be sung aloud
UNMANI AVASTHA: mindless state of Yogins
UPADHI: limiting adjunct
UPAHITA CHAITANYA: pure consciousness associated with Upadhis, the individual soul
UPASAKA: worshipper
UPASANA: worship
URDHVARETAS: a Yogi in whom the seminal energy flows upwards to the brain and is stored up as Ojas Sakti or spiritual energy
UTSAHA: cheerfulness, enthusiam

 

V

VAIRA-BHAKTI: constant and intense thought of God induced by hatred and enmity
VAIRAGYA: dispassion
VAISESHIKA: system of Indian philosophy founded by Kanada Rishi
VAK-INDRIYA: the organ of speech
VAKYA: sentence
VARUNA-ASTRA: water-missile

VASANA: latent subtle desire

VASTU: substance, entity
VAYU: air
VEDA: the revealed scripture of the Hindus containing the Upanishads
VEDANTA: (Lit.) end of the Vedas; the school of thought based primarily on the Vedic Upanishads

VIBHU: all-pervading

VICHARA: enquiry
VIDEHAMUKTA: one who has attained disembodied Salvation
VIJATIYA-VRITTI-TIRASKARA: casting aside of alien thoughts, i.e., thoughts other than those of God
VIJNANAMAYA KOSHA: the intellectual sheath
VIJNANAVADA: subjective idealism
VIKALPA: fancy
VIKARA: modifications or change
VIKSHEPA: tossing of mind
VIRAT: macrocosm; the Lord in His form as the manifested universe

VIRAT-VISVARUPA-DARSANA: the vision of the Lord’s cosmic form

VISESHA: special
VISHAYA: sense-object
VISHAYAKARA-VRITTI: the flow of objective thinking
VISHAYA-VRITTI-PRAVAHA: the continuous thought-current of worldly objects
VISISHTADVAITA: the doctrine of conditioned non-dualism
VISTARA: expansion
VISVA: Chaitanya associated with the gross body in the waking state

VIVARTA: illusory appearance, apparent variation, superimposition

VIVEKA: discrimination
VRATA: religious vow
VRITTI: a wave of thought, a modification of the mind
VYAKARANATMAKA: grammatical

VYANJAKA: indicative, manifesting

VYAPAKA: all-pervading
VYAVAHARA-RAHITA: devoid of worldly activity
VYAVAHARIC: worldly
VYAVASAYATMIKA: with resolution and determination

Y
YAJNA: sacrifice
YAMA: self-restraint
YOGA: (Lit.) union; union of the individual soul with the Supreme Soul; any course which makes for such union
YOGABHRASHTA: one who has fallen from the high state of Yoga
YOGAMAYA: the power of divine illusion
YOGA SADHANA: the spiritual discipline of Yoga
YOGI(N): one who practises Yoga; one who is established in Yoga
YONI-MUDRA: the Mudra in which one closes the ears, eyes, nose and mouth with the thumbs and fingers of the hands to enable one to hear the Anahata sounds